re polemis v wagon mound

146, 148. Re Polemis has yet to be overruled by an English court and is still technically "good law". 123 21 Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd or "Wagon Mound (No 1)" [1961] UKPC 1 is a landmark tort law case, which imposed a remoteness rule for causation in negligence.The Privy Council held that a party can only be held liable for damage that was reasonably foreseeable. The initial injury (the burn) was a readily foreseeable type and the subsequent cancer was treated as merely extending the amount of harm suffered. The Privy Council’s judgment effectively removed the application of strict liability from tort law that was established in Re Polemis (1921) below. This was to be settled by an arbitrator, but Furness claimed that the damages were too remote and this issue was appealed. Held: Re Polemis can no longer be regarded as good law. Notably, this authority would go on to be replaced in the case of Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd (The Wagon Mound) (No. 0000001354 00000 n 0000001893 00000 n Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? See also James, Polemis: The Scotch’d Snake C19621 J.B.L. *You can also browse our support articles here >. co Facts of the case Overseas Tankship had a ship, the Wagon Mound, docked in Sydney Harbour in October 1951. 1 Re Polemis Question 13 Why did the plaintiffs in Wagon Mound No 1 concede from LAWS 6023 at The Chinese University of Hong Kong 11. Free resources to assist you with your legal studies! The fact that the extent of these consequences was neither subjectively appreciated nor objectively foreseeable was deemed irrelevant to such a determination. The" Wagon Mound" unberthed and set sail very shortly after. versal application. It is submitted that the Wagon Mound No.1 ruling effectively curtailed the practical range of liability that had previously been established in Re Polemis and that Wagon Mound essentially overruled Re Polemis. This oil drifted across the dock, eventually surrounding two other ships being repaired. 5 There was, of course, the binding decision by the Court of Appeal in Re Polemis & Furniss. Dock and Engineering Co. (usually called the Wagon Mound Case1) the Privy Council rejected the rule pronounced in In re Polemis and Furness, Withy & Co.2 and re-established the rule of reasonable … Contributory negligence on the part of the dock owners was also relevant in the decision, and was essential to the outcome, although not central to this case's legal significance. The plank struck something as it was falling which caused a spark. After consultation with charterers of Wagon Mound, MD Limited’s manager allowed Case Summary Consequently, the court uses the reasonable foresight test in The Wagon Mound, as the Privy Council ruled that Re Polemis should not be considered good law. View In re Polemis and Overseas Tankship v. Morts Dock .docx from LAW 402A at University Of Arizona. … Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not reflect the views of LawTeacher.net. Reference this When vessel was taking fuel oil at Sydney Port, due to negligence of appellant`s servant large quantity of oil was spread on water. 0000006931 00000 n In 1961, in Overseas Tankship (U.K.) Ltd-, v. Morts. re Polemis – any damage foreseen Wagon Mound 1 – type of harm Hughes v L Advocate – method unseen but PI Jolley v Sutton – method unseen but type foreseen Tremain v … 16-2 Contributory Negligence i) Davies V. Mann ii) Butterfield V. Forrester iii) British India Electric Co. V. Loach ��ζ��9E���Y�tnm/``4 `HK`` c`H``c rTCX�V�10�100����8 4�����ǂE"4����fa��5���Lϙ�8ؘ}������3p1���0��c�؁�ـ$P�(��AH�8���S���e���43�t�*�~fP$ y`q�^n � ��@$� � P���� �>� �hW��T�; ��S� 123 0 obj <> endobj Spread led to MD Limited’s wharf, where welding was in progress. 0000005064 00000 n Re Polemis and Furness, Withy & Co [1921] 3 KB 560 Facts: ... using The Wagon Mound test & approach in Hughes v Lord Advocate [1963]: not necessary to distinguish between different physical injuries, because precise nature of injury does not need to be foreseeable; Egg-shell skull rule. 0000001802 00000 n of Re Potemis that eventually led to its removal from the law was based on historical misconceptions. Re Polemis was a COA decision and in principle binding upon the lower court; the Privy Council decision had only persuasive authority. But, on 18 January 1961, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council handed down its judgment in Overseas Tankship (U.K.) Ltd v. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. 4. i) Scott V. Shepherd ii) Re Polemis and Furnace Ltd. iii) Wagon Mound case iv) Hughes V. Lord Advocate v) Haynes V. Harwood Ch. CO.,‘ and it is possible that lower courts will feel free to do the same.5 THE WAGON MOUND The Wagon Mound (as the decision will be called for short) 143 0 obj<>stream Wagon Mound (No. The defendant's vessel, The Wagon Mound, leaked furnace oil at a Wharf in Sydney Harbour. The plaintiffs are owners of ships docked at the wharf. Though the first authority for the view if advocating the directness test is the case of Smith v. Re Polemis was a 1921 decision of the English Court of Appeal. This development clearly favoured defendants by placing a foreseeability limitation on the extent of their potential liability. The fire spread rapidly causing destruction of some boats and the wharf. Charterers of Wagon Mound carelessly spilt fuel oil onto water when fuelling in harbour. It will be shown below5 that although by the time of its " overruling" in The Wagon Mound (No. The Privy Council dismissed as an error the principle that foreseeability ‘goes … 0000007122 00000 n trailer 0000008953 00000 n %%EOF 0000001985 00000 n The Privy Council held that a party can be held liable only for loss that was reasonably foreseeable. H��UMo�8��W�V��Y��h��n� ��X(�����][B���%R��:�E�H�p����H *��4a��-�Lq \4����r��E�������)R�d�%g����[�i�I��qE���H�%��_D�lC�S�D�K4�,3$[%�����8���&'�w�gA{. 560, except that “kind of damage” has now to be understood in the light of the interpretation in The Wagon Mound (No. As a matter of fact, it was found that it was not reasonable to expect anyone to know that oil i… Some cotton debris became embroiled in the oil and sparks from some welding works ignited the oil. Privy Council disapproved of Re Polemis. 0000007028 00000 n 1), Re Polemis had indeed become a " bad " case laying down an inappropriate rule, these misconceptions about why the rule The remoteness of damage rule limits a defendant's liability to what can be reasonably justified, ensures a claimant does not profit from an event and aids insurers to assess future liabilities. xref <]>> Re Polemis should no longer be regarded as good law. 0000001226 00000 n 21st Jun 2019 Company Registration No: 4964706. The Re Polemis decision was disapproved of, and its test replaced, in the later decision of the Privy Council in the Wagon Mound (No. 0000009883 00000 n It is inevitable that first consideration should be given to the case of In re Polemis & Furness Withy & Company Ltd. [1921] 3 K.B. Polemis and Boyazides are ship owners who chartered a ship to Furness. Q'��S)휬M���/��urY9eU�Ƭ�o$6�]\��NfW��7��4s�T %PDF-1.6 %���� Working ... Donoghue v Stevenson : 5 law cases you should know (1/5) - Duration: 2:25. At first instance (arbitration), it was held that the reasonable unforeseeability of the outcome meant that the defendant was not liable for the cost of the ship. 4 [I9621 2 Q.B. Overseas Tankship chartered the ‘Wagon Mound’ vessel, which was to be used to transport oil. 0000005984 00000 n Wagon Mound) C19611 A.C. 388; for convenience of reference, The Wagon Mound. Any information contained in this case summary does not constitute legal advice and should be treated as educational content only. The defendants are the owners of the vessel Wagon Mound, which was moored 600 feet from a wharf. The Wagon Mound (No. Cancel Unsubscribe. Loading... Unsubscribe from Kalam Zahrah? We also have a number of sample law papers, each written to a specific grade, to illustrate the work delivered by our academic services. 560 which will henceforward be referred to as "Polemis ". 0000002997 00000 n Take a look at some weird laws from around the world! Can a defendant be held liable for outcome of events entirely caused by their (or their agents’) actions, but which could not have been foreseen by either the party in question or any other reasonable party. 0000008055 00000 n 1) [1961]. In-house law team. Overseas Tankship Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd, commonly known as Wagon Mound, is a landmark tort law case, which imposed a remoteness rule for causation in negligence. Re Polemis & Furness Withy & Company Ltd. [1921] 3 KB 560 Some Stevedores carelessly dropped a plank of wood into the hold of a ship. The Wagon Mound is the accepted test in Malaysia, approved in the case of Government of Malaysia v … To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! 1) (1961) was the Australian tort appeal case from the New South Wales Supreme Court that went all the way to the Privy Council in London. 2) [1967] Thoburn v Sunderland City Council [2002] Thomas v Clydesdale Bank [2010] Thomas v National Union of Miners [1986] Thomas v Sawkins [1935] Thomas v Sorrell (1673) Due to rough weather there had been some leakage from the cargo, so when the ship reached port there was gas vapour present below the deck. 0000004069 00000 n The crew had carelessly allowed furnace oil … Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - LawTeacher is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. As it fell, the wood knocked against something else, which created a spark which served to ignite the surrounding petrol fumes, ultimately resulting in the substantial destruction of the ship. WAGON MOUND II- RE POLEMIS REVIVED; NUISANCE REVISED H. J. Glasbeek* Ordinarily the term spectacular is an uncalled-for de- scription of a judicial decision, but the opinion rendered by the Privy Council in Overseas Tankship (U.K.) Ltd. v. The Miller Steamship Co. Pty and Another' certainly deserves this epithet. Employees of the defendant had been loading cargo into the underhold of a ship when they negligently dropped a large plank of wood. 1) [1961] AC 388, however it has never been officially overturned in English law and theoretically remains ‘good case law’, despite its lack of application. The ship was being loaded at a port in Australia. Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock & Engineering Co Ltd (Wagon Mound) In Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock (Wagon Mound), the Privy Council held that a defendant should only be liable for damage which was reasonably foreseeable.In doing so, they held that In Re Polemis should no longer be regarded as good law. 413-414. Disclaimer: This work was produced by one of our expert legal writers, as a learning aid to help law students with their studies. Re Polemis Case. 0000005153 00000 n Lamb v Camden [1981] 2 All ER 408; McKew v Holland & Hannen & Cubitts (Scotland) Ltd. [1969] 3 All ER 1621; Overseas Tankship v Morts Dock (The Wagon Mound (No 1)) [1961] AC 388; Page v Smith [1996] 1 AC 155; Parsons v Uttley Ingham & Co Ltd. [1978] QB 791; Re Polemis and Furness, Withy & Co [1921] 3 KB 560; Robinson v Post Office [1974] 1 WLR 1176 to the Court of Appeal to refuse to follow Re Polemis on one or more of the grounds laid down in Young v. Bristol Aero. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. 0000001144 00000 n 0000003089 00000 n Owners of … 0000000016 00000 n startxref ... Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd (The Wagon Mound) (No. The Wagon Mound and Re Polemis Until rg61 the unjust and much criticized rule in Re Polemisl was held, by the courts, to be the law in both England and Australia. Hewitt and Greenland v. Chaplin. 1) [1961] AC 388, however it has never been officially overturned in English law and theoretically remains ‘good case law’, despite its lack of application. 0000000716 00000 n Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock & Engineering Co Ltd (The Wagon Mound (No 1)) AC 388 D’s vessel leaked oil that caused fire. x�b```"9����cb�~w�G�#��g4�����V4��� ��L����PV�� The Wagon Mound Case,1961 Overseas Tankship Co(U.K.) v. Morts Dock and engineering. Sparks from the welders ignited the oil, destroying the Wagon Mound and the two ships being repaired. Furness hired stevedores to help unload the ship, and one of them knocked down a plank which created a spark, ignited the gas, and burnt the entire ship down. This was rejected expressly in the case by the court of appeal in Re Polemis and Furness, Withy and Co. Ltd. in favor of the test of directness. 0000001712 00000 n The extent of liability where the injuries resultant from tortious negligence are entirely unforeseeable. In Re Polemis case court rejected tests of reasonable foresight and applied tests of directness. 16-1 Negligence i) Donoghue V. Stevenson ii) Bolton V. Stone iii) Roe V. Minister of Health Ch. Wagon Mound Case A vessel was chartered by appellant. Looking for a flexible role? In re Polemis 3 K.B. This is no more than the old Polemis principle [1921] 3 K.B. dicta expressing, not only agreement with the Wagon Mound principle, but also the opinion that Canadian courts are free to adopt it in preference to the Polemis rule.6 The object of this article is to examine the validity of these dicta. 405; the arguments of both sides are summarised by Lord Parker at pp. The Wagon Mound … Re polemis Kalam Zahrah. The Court of Appeal adopted a strict liability approach to causation and assessing liability here and subsequently held that the defendant was liable for all of the consequences that had resulted from their negligent actions. Due to the defendant’s negligence, furnace oil was discharged into the bay causing minor injury to the plaintiff’s ships. endstream endobj 124 0 obj<> endobj 125 0 obj<>/Encoding<>>>>> endobj 126 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]>>/Type/Page>> endobj 127 0 obj<> endobj 128 0 obj<> endobj 129 0 obj<> endobj 130 0 obj<>stream The spark was ignited by petrol vapours resulting in the destruction of the ship. Held: Wagon Mound made no difference to a case such as this. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Due to the carelessness of the workers, oil overflowed and sat on the water’s surface. 0 A claimant must prove that the damage was not only caused by the defendant but that it was not too remote. 560 (1921) WHAT HAPPENED? Re Polemis and Furness, Withy & Co Ltd [1921] 3 KB 560. From some re polemis v wagon mound works ignited the oil, destroying the Wagon Mound and the wharf &! 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